Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is classified into two species: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both of them are capable of causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. Targets for HIV are CD4-positive cells: Th-lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells – key components of human immune system. To pursuit of knowledge about the HIV replication cycle, pathogenesis, and course of infection is crucial for designing new diagnostic tests, antiviral drugs and vaccines. The eradication of HIV infections and finding a cure for AIDS are some of the most challenging aims for today’s medicine.

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